Photocards are continually updated
 

Order: Lamniformes   Family: Lamnidae
 
White shark Carcharodon carcharias

Mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus

Megalodon shark   Carcharodon/cles megalodon


Order: Lamniformes   Family: Otodontidae

Otodus obliquus (Lamna obliqua)
 

Order: Lamniformes   Family: Mitsukurinidae

Goblin shark  Mitsukurina owstoni
 

Order: Heterodontiformes   Family: Heterodontidae

Japanese horn shark Heterodontus japonicus
 

Order: Lamniformes   Family: Odontaspididae

Grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus

Smalltooth sandtiger shark Odontaspis ferox
 

Order: Lamniformes   Family: Alopiidae

Bigeye theresher shark  Alopias superciliosus

Order: Lamniformes   Family: Cetorhinidae

Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus

Order: Lamniformes   Family: Megachasmidae

Megamouth  Megachasma pelagios

 

Order: Cladoselachiformes   Family: Cladoselachidae

Cladoselache shark   Cladoselache sp.


Order: Carcharhiniformes   Family: Triakidae

Common smoothound  Mustelus mustelus
 

Order: Carcharhiniformes   Family: Carcharhinidae

Oceanic white tip shark Carcharhinus longimanus

Blue shark Prionace glauca

White fin shark  Triaenodon obesus

Black fin reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus

Tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier

Grey shark Carcharhinus plumbeus

Sorrah shark Carcharhinus sorrah

Silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis

Blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus

Lemon shark  Negaprion brevirostris

Zambesi shark  Carcharhinus leucas

Dusky shark  Carcharhinus obscurus

Copper shark  Carcharhinus brachyurus

Galapagos shark  Carcharhinus galapagensis
 

Order: Carcharhiniformes  Family: Sphyrnidae

Hammerhead shark   Sphyrna lewini

Great hammerhead shark  Sphyrna mokarran
 

Order: Carcharhiniformes  Family: Scyliorhinidae

Lesser spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

Coral catshark  Atelomycterus marmoratus

Greyspotted catshark  Asymbolus analis

Greater spotted catshark Scyliorhinus stellaris


Order: Carcharhiniformes  Family: Proscylliidae

Pygmy ribbontail catshark  Eridacnis radcliffei


Order: Squaliformes  Family: Squalidae

Piked dogfish  Squalus acanthias

Order: Squaliformes  Family: Etmopteridae

Cylindrical lanternshark  Etmopterus carteri

Dwarf lanternshark  Etmopterus perryi


Order: Squaliformes  Family: Somniosidae

Greenland shark  Somniosus microcephalus
 

Order: Orectolobiformes  Family: Rhincodontidae

Whale shark  Rhincodon typus

Order: Orectolobiformes  Family: Stegostomatidae

Zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum

Order: Orectolobiformes  Family: Orectolobidae

Japanese wobbegong  Orectolobus japonicus


Order: Orectolobiformes  Family: Hemyscillidae

 Bandaged bamboo shark Chiloscillium punctatum

Spotted bamboo shark Chiloscillium plagiosum
 

Order: Hexanchiformes  Family: Clamydoselachidae

Frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus

Order: Hexanchiformes  Family: Hexanchidae

Bluntnose sixgill shark  Hexanchus griseus


 

RAYS

Order: Rajiformes   Family: Rhinobatidae

Guitarfishes  Rhinobatos sp.

Order: Rajiformes   Family: Rhinidae

Sharkfin guitarfishes  Rhina ancylostoma

Order: Rajiformes   Family: Pristidae

Smalltooth sawfish  Pristis pectinata

 

CHIMAERAS

Order: Chimaeriformes  Family: Chimaeridae

Chimaera or Ghost shark  Chimaera monstrosa

 

 

 

 

 

Carcharodon carcharias

Carcharodon carcharias
LINNEO, 1758
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Lamnidae
 
Middle dimensions: 350-460 cm.
Maximum dimensions: it overcomes the 700 cm.
Distribution: in all the moderate and sub-tropical seas of the world, present in the Mediterranean sea. It ishypothesized the existence of a reproductive area between Sicily and Tunisia.

Coloration: grey-bluish back with clean passage to the white of the abdomen. Stung ax in the ventral part of the pectoral fins.
Reproduction: probably ovoviviparous (viviparous without placentata)

Compare with the man: considered among the most dangerous sharks for the man.
Commercial value: object of sporting and commercial fishing for the liver, the skin, the fins, the carcass, the teeth and the jaws.

Teeth: triangular, astute, strongly serrated to the borders. The teeth of the superior and inferior jaws are very similar.

Notes: shark of great dimensions, thick, with the pointed face. The mouth is ample the round and black eyes. The dorsal fins are two, her before averages dimensions, the dwarfish second. The pectoral fins are wide and falcades, while the caudal fin is symmetrical and to crescent. The white shark mainly swims in the coastal waters where it can finds its preys, constituted by pinnipeda, fishes, sharks, turtle, but also mammalian sea, birds and carcasses of great vertebrates. The shark can reach the 60 kmhs. and it completes very fast releases thanks to the possibility to also maintain its muscles to a temperature of 10C superior to that of the water that surrounds it. The white shark is drastically decreased of number in all the seas of the world and this has pushed many countries to declare it protected. The greatest sample captured by the man was a female of 7,14 meters.
(READ THE ARTICLE)
 
 
 

Isurus oxyrinchus

Isurus oxyrinchus
RAFINESQUE, 1809
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Lamnidae
 
Middle dimensions: 150-200 cm.
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 400 cm.
Distribution: in all the tropical and moderate waters, from the Atlantic to the Indopacific to the Mediterranean.

Coloration: blue-grey back, white abdomen.
Reproduction: ovoviviparous (viviparous without placentata)

Compare with the man: potentially very dangerous.
Commercial value: object of sporting and commercial fishing to use its meats, considered appreciate.

Teeth: triangular, narrow, smooth and without side cusps; very similar in both the jaws.

Notes: very powerful shark with slender body and pointed face. The first dorsal fin is middly tall and developed, the smallest second. The pectoral fins are long and falciformi, the caudal fin almost symmetrical.
The mako is considered the fastest among the known sharks, also thanks to the ability that has to maintain the temperature of its muscles of 7-10 superior C to that of the environment that surroundsit. It swims in coastal and pelagic waters, among the surface and around 150 ms of depth. Its preys are constituted by fishes and cefalopoda; the greatest samples succeed in also attaching mammalian sea of small dimensions.
(READ THE ARTICLE)
 

 

 

Prionace glauca

 

Prionace glauca

Prionace glauca
LINNEO, 1758
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae
 
Middle dimensions: 140-210 cm.
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 400 cm.
Distribution: cosmopolitan, in the Mediterranean it is present anywhere.

Coloration: bright blue back with blue tones on the sides, white abdomen.
Reproduction: viviparous (with placenta)

Compare with the man: potentially dangerous, even if not particularly aggressive.
Commercial value: object of sporting and commercial fishing for the meats, the liver, the skin and the fins.

Teeth: in the superior jaw they have an alone cusp slightly bent, with serrated edges, in that inferior more tightened and straight.

Notes: shark from the body tapered with the very long face. Also the pectoral fins are particularly long and pointed. The eyes are great and round.
The first dorsal fin is small and with rounded off apex, the lowest second, positioned to the same height of the anal fin. The caudal fin is long with the well developed inferior lobe. The blue shark lives in waters both coastlines and pelagic, up to 190 ms of depth. It often swims in numerous flocks and it has a strong tendency to the migration, also transoceanic. Its preys are mainly constituted by fishes and cefalopoda. The blue shark fins are particularly appreciated in the Asian market for their culinary use in the dish of the soup.
(READ THE ARTICLE)
 
 

 

Sphyrna lewini

 

Sphyrna lewini
GRIFFITH & SMITH, 1834
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Sphyrnidae
 
Middle dimensions: 200-300 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 420 cm.
Distribution: in all the warm tropical and moderate seas. Mediterranean?

Coloration: olive grey or brown back, clear abdomen. Stung ax in the ventral part of the pectoral fin.
Reproduction: viviparous
(with placenta)

Compare with the man: potentially dangerous.
Commercial value: it is fished for using its meats, the skin, the liver, the fins, the carcass.

Teeth: in the superior jaw they are triangular, oblique and smooth, in that inferior more straight and pointed.

Notes: shark characterized by a head flattened with two side expansions at the end of which the eyes are found. The body is sideways slender and compressed, the first dorsal fin is tall and slightly falcade, the second smallest. It lives in pelagic waters and coastlines from the surface to around 275 ms of depth, feeding itself of small fishes, races, sharks, cefalopoda and shellfishes. The function of such a particular head is not clear yet, probably it is that to increase the sensorial abilities what the sight, the sense of smell and the electroreception. the idrodinamicity of the shark could also result improved by such conformation.
(READ THE ARTICLE)
 
 

 

Rhyncodon typus

 

Rhyncodon typus

Rhincodon typus
SMITH, 1828
Order: Orectolobiformes
Family: Rhincodontidae

Middle dimensions: 8-12 meters
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 18 meters
Distribution: in all the warm and tropical moderate seas.

Coloration: bluish back with strips and clear roundish stains. White abdomen.
Reproduction: probably ovoviviparous (viviparous without placenta)

Compare with the man: harmless, even if because of its dimensions it can damage and to unintentionally upset boats.
 
Teeth: 3000-5000 small teeth of 3-5 mm. in every jaw. The whale shark eats plankton, so the teeth function is unknown.
 
Notes: thick shark, of cylindrical form with visible hulls along the whole back and the sides. The face is wide, flat, with an ample mouth. The caudal fin is very developed. The whale shark feeds him of plankton and small fishes that it captures swimming with the open mouth and making the water pass through the filtrate apparatus connected to the gills. Considered one of the kinds less studied , it represents a true mystery for many aspects of its biology and ethology as the reproduction, the rhythms of growth, the migratory moves and its particular coloration
.

 

 

Triaenodon obesus

WHITE FIN SHARK
Triaenodon obesus
RUPPELL, 1837
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 110-180 cm.
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 210 cm.
Distribution: in all the tropical waters, from the Red Sea to the Indopacific, up to Australia, Galapagos and Coast Rica.

Coloration: brown-grey back, grey-pearly back, white abdomen. Evident stains bright white on the point of the first dorsal fin and on the superior lobe of the caudal fin.
Reproduction: viviparous (with placenta)

Compare with the man: can be dangerous if bothered.

Teeth: triangular, narrow, smooth, slightly arched and with one side cusp; very similar in both the jaws.

Notes: shark from the tapered body, with the ample face and flattened. You easily recognizes it for the white stain on the superior lobe of the caudal fin and on the point of the first dorsal fin, that is set to the center of the shark body, behind the pectoral fins. The second dorsal fin, smaller, it is opposite to the anal fin. The pectoral fins are ample and of triangular form. This shark usually lives in coastal waters, in proximity of the coral barriers.
In the daytime standstill in caves, alone or in groups while during the night it goes in search of shellfishes, cefalopoda and fishes.
The Triaenodon obesus is longeval, in fact this shark can live up to 25 years.

 

 

Chiloscillium

 

Chiloscillium punctatum

BANDAGED BAMBOO SHARK
Chiloscillium punctatum
Family: Hemiscyllidae

Distribution: Tropical Indo-Pacific

Dimensions: up to around 110 cm

Description: not mature sharks have a coloration with white and black stripes, instead the adults are of brown-grey color not always uniform.

Reproduction: oviparous
Habits: shark appreciated by the acquariofilis, in fact it lives very well in captivity into aquarium, if well kept. It lives in proximity of sandy and coral backdrops, to low depth. It is more active during the nighttime hours during which, in nature, it goes in search of shellfishes and small fishes. In aquarium, when its dimensions increase up to around 40-50 cm this shark can eventually be dangerous for all the small fishes less fast presents.

Compare with the man: harmless but can bite if repeatedly annoyed.

Feeding in aquarium: small fishes, invertebrate small animals.

Cares in aquarium: the water's temperature around the 28 Cs, a sample of around 25 cm needs an aquarium with least 1000 litres of water.
The sharks of the kind Chiloscillium if well kept can survive in captivity up to 25 years.
 

 

 

Chiloscillium plagiosum

SPOTTED BAMBOO SHARK
Chiloscillium plagiosum
Family: Hemiscyllidae

Distribution: Western Indo-Pacific
Dimensions: up to around 100 cm

Description: shark with rounded face and lengthened tail. The back is of dark grey-brown color with clearer stains of irregular dimensions. Darker transversal stripes can be present. The abdomen is light brown.

Reproduction: oviparous.

Habits: shark appreciated by the acquariofilis, in fact it lives very well in captivity into aquarium, if well kept. It lives in proximity of sandy and coral backdrops, to low depth. It is more active during the nighttime hours during which, in nature, it goes in search of shellfishes and small fishes that are sleeping. In aquarium, when its dimensions increase up to around 40-50 cm this shark can eventually be dangerous for all the small fishes less fast presents.

Compare with the man: harmless.

Feeding in aquarium: small fishes, molluscs and sea small invertebrates .

Cares in aquarium: the water's temperature around the 28 Cs, a sample of around 25 cm needs an aquarium with least 900 litres of water.
The sharks of the kind Chiloscillium if well kept can survive in captivity up to 25 years.

 

 

ZEBRA SHARK
Stegostoma fasciatum
HERMANN, 1783
Order: Orectolobiformes
Family: Stegostomatidae

Middle dimensions: 100-170 cm.
Maximum dimensions: the shark reaches the 350 cm.
Distribution: Indopacific ocean, from the African coasts to those Indians and Australians.
Coloration: brown-yellowish back with dark stains, white abdomen.
Reproduction: oviparous.
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: the shark is fished to use the meats, the liver and the fins.

Teeth: pointed, with a central cusp and two side. They are similar in the superior and inferior jaws.

Notes: shark with very evident hulls along the back and the sides. The face is slightly flattened with small beard in front of the mouth. The first dorsal fin is ampler than the second and also the pectoral fins are particularly developed.
The caudal fin is very great and can reach the same length of all of the body of the animal. The zebra shark seems to be more active during the nighttime hours, feeding himself of molluscs, shellfishes and small fishes. The young samples have a completely different coloration from the adults: brown dark color with yellowish strips on the whole body.

 

 

BLACK FIN REEF SHARK
Carcharhinus melanopterus
QUOY & GAIMARD, 1824
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 100-150 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 200 cm.
Distribution: in the tropical waters of the Indopacific ocean and the Red Sea. Present in oriental Mediterranean, in proximity of Suez channel.
Coloration: clear brown back, abdomen white cream. The apexes of the fins are black, more visible those of the first dorsal and of the caudal fin. The sides are crossed by a white strip.
Reproduction: viviparous
(with placenta)
Compare with the man: the shark is not dangerous if not provoked.
Commercial value: fished to use the meats.

Teeth: triangular, with a central point and side parts serrated in the superior jaw, more narrow in that inferior.

Notes: shark of ransom average with the short head and rounded off. The first dorsal fin is wide, falciformis and with a showy black stain on the point, the second dorsal fin ample and tall. The pectoral fins are small, pointed and falciformis, the caudal fin is asymmetrical, with a very tall superior lobe, developed and with showy black stains to the apexes. The black fin reef shark is very diffused in the coral barriers, in proximity of which the shark swims up to depth of around 30 ms. It goes to hunting in the evening and nighttime hours, plundering small fishes, sharks, races, cefaloposi, shellfishes and sea snakes. This shark is prey of kind of greater sharks.
 

 

 


GREY NURSE SHARK
Carcharias taurus
RAFINESQUE, 1810
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Odontaspididae

Middle dimensions: 200 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 320 cm.
Distribution: in all the oceans, in the Mediterranean the bull shark is present anywhere.
Coloration: grey-brown back with irregular stains on the sides brown-reddish color; white abdomen.
Reproduction: ovoviviparous (viviparous without placenta)
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous.
Commercial value: the shark is fished to use the meats, the fins and the liver.

Teeth: long and sharp, with a central point and an only bi-side cusp; the teeth are similar in the two jaws.

Notes: thick shark, with short and pointed head. The dorsal fins are two, the first one middly great, the second smallest. Also the pectoral fins are little developed. The caudal fin is strong, asymmetrical, with the ampler superior lobe, the anal fin is particularly great. The shark bull swims in coastal waters, reaching the depth of around 220 ms. The preys are constituted by fishes, races, sharks, shellfishes and cefalopods. The bull shark can live and reproduce in aquarium. The bull shark is very similar to the Odontaspis ferox from which mainly differs for the body colours and the form of the teeth.

 

 

 

TIGER SHARK
Galeocerdo cuvier
PERON & The SUEURs, 1822
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 330-420 cm
Maximum dimensions: it reaches and it overcomes the 700 cm
Distribution: in all the tropical and moderate seas of the world. Mediterranean?
Coloration: grey-brown back with more visible dark transversal gangs in the young samples. White abdomen.
Reproduction: ovoviviparous (viviparous without placenta)
Compare with the man: potentially very dangerous. Attacks have been signalled to underwater fishermen and divers.
Commercial value: the tiger shark is fished to use the meat, the skin, the fins and the liver.

Teeth: characteristic, with the form of cockscomb with a pointed central part and curved parts serrate, able to cut very hard objects.

Notes: thick shark, with a body tapered in the back part and a wide head, short and flattened. The mouth is ample, the eyes are great and round.
The dorsal fins are two, the first one is slightly falcade, the second smaller and positioned around to the same height of the anal fin.
The pectoral fins are arched and well developed.
The tiger shark lives in warm waters both coastlines and pelagic, up to 140 . of depth and can be also present in estuaries and inside coral barriers.
Its preys are various: invertebrate, turtle, fishes, birds and sea mammals. In the stomach of this shark human and inorganic refusals as garments have also been found, wood pieces, cans, characteristic that let consider the tiger shark as "street sweeper" of the seas. The shark is active above all during the night, when he swims near to the shores or to the bluffs, while during the day he remains to elevated depth.
(READ THE ARTICLE)

 

 

BIGEYE THRESHER SHARK
Alopias superciliosus
LOWE, 1839
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Alopiidae

Middle dimensions: 250 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 550 cm.
Distribution: in all the tropical and moderate seas of the world. Present in the western Mediterranean.
Coloration: back brown dark or grey dark color, whitish abdomen.
Reproduction: ovoviviparaous (viviparous without placenta)
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous because of the dimensions.
Commercial value: object of sporting fishing.

Teeth: smooth and sharp, similar in the two jaws.

Notes: thick shark, with face of conic form and great and round eyes, proper for the sight in dark environments. The first dorsal fin is middly ample and situated in very behind position, the second is smaller, similar to the anal one. The pectoral fins are long and falcate. Unmistakable the caudal fin, strongly asymmetrical and long almost as the rest of the body of the animal. The bigeye thresher shark swims from the surface to around 500 m of depth, rarely in coastal waters. Its preys are constituted by small fishes, shellfishes and cefalopods that are stunned by the hits of its enormous tail.

 

 

GUITARFISHES
Rhinobatos sp.
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Rhinobatidae

Middle dimensions: 40 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 100-130 cm.
Distribution: western coasts of Africa, oriental and western Atlantic, Mediterranean (for the common guitar fish Rhinobatos rhinobatos).
Coloration: back from brown greenish to grey brown, in some kinds with brown and grey-blue stains. The abdomen is cream color.
Reproduction: ovoviviparous.(viviparous without placenta)
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: these rays are rarely fished.

Teeth: small, generally flat, destined to the crushing of the preys.

Notes: the rays belonging to the family Rhinobatidae is characterized by a body very flattened, two dorsal fins prepared in behind position of the ventral fins and a caudal fin unprovided of the inferior lobe. They are endowed with a pointed rostrum and flattened. They swim next to the fund, mainly sandy and muddy, from 75 up to 200 m of depth, plundering small fishes, molluscs, shellfishes and echinoderm. These rays are more numerous but of smaller dimensions in comparison to those belonging to the family Rhinidae.

 

 

SHARKFIN GUITARFISHES
Rhina ancylostoma
BLOCK & SCHNEIDER, 1801
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Rhinidae

Middle dimensions: 140 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 260 cm.
Distribution: Indopacific sea.
Coloration: adults with back from grey-blue to brown with small white stains, abdomen cream color. The young samples have only a brown band among the eyes and white stains on the pectoral fins.
Reproduction: ovoviviparous (viviparous without placenta).
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: this ray is rarely fished.

Teeth: small, with more functional file, destined to the crushing of the preys.

Notes: ray of very particular form, with a rounded off head and thick and a sturdy body. On the back they are present strong thorny hulls. The pectoral fins are wide and the caudal fin has the inferior lobe very developed, characteristic that does this ray swim as a shark. Alive next to the fund to depth that has gone since 3 to the 90 ms feeding invertebrates. Rhina ancylostoma belongs to the family Rhinidae, great rays with body and head wide and flattened and a powerful person tail similar to that of the sharks. Also the great dorsal fins remember those some sharks, element that can provoke confusion in the identification of these rays.

 

 


 

 

SORRAH SHARK
Carcharhinus sorrah
VALENCIENNES, 1839
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 140 cm
Maximum dimensions: 200-230 cm
Distribution: Red sea and Indopacific, from the African coasts to those Indians and Australians.  Coloration: grey back with black stains to the apexes of the second dorsal fin, of the pectoral fins and of the inferior lobe of the caudal fin; on the sides it is present a showy white strip. also the abdomen is white.
Reproduction: viviparous
(with placenta)
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous. 
Commercial value: fished to use the meats, the liver and the fins of it. 

Teeth: small, oblique and elegantly serrated to the borders, more pointed in the inferior jaw. 

Notes: shark of small ransom with paunchy body and long face and rounded off. The first dorsal fin is wide and falcade, the second smaller. Falcades and small are the pectoral fins. This shark swims in coastal waters, not away from the fund, up to depth of around 140 m. The preys are constituted by fishes, races, cefalopods, shellfishes and is prey of kind of greater sharks.

 

 

 

SILKY SHARK
Carcharhinus falciformis
BIBRON, MULLER & HENLE, 1839
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 200 cm
Maximum dimensions: 350 cm
Distribution: Atlantic, Indopacific, Red Sea, in tropical waters. Mediterranean?
Coloration: grey-brown back with blue reflexes, abdomen white cream. The borders of the pectoral and ventral fins can be dark ventrally.  Reproduction: viviparous
(with placenta)
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous.  Commercial value: is fished to use the meats, the skin, the liver and the fins of it. 

Teeth: wide, triangular, oblique and with edges serrated in the jaw superior, more narrow and smooth in that inferior. 

Notes: shark from the slender body, with the rounded off face and long, the eyes are round. The first dorsal fin is short, the second very similar to that anal. The pectoral fins are long and falciformes, the caudal fin is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. This shark lives in pelagic waters, reaching very elevated depth, superior to the 1000 m. The preys are constituted by fishes, cefalopods, shellfishes and this shark is often observed in proximity of benches of tunas. If approached by scuba divers it assumes, as other kinds of the family Carcharinidae, a threatening position arching the back, lifting the head and lowering the pectoral fins.

 

 

 

BLACKTIP SHARK
Carcharhinus limbatus
VALENCIENNES, 1839
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 150 cm
Maximum dimensions: 320 cm
Distribution: Mediterranean and in the tropical and sub-tropical waters of the Atlantic and Indopacific.
Coloration: grey-bronzy back, white abdomen. The borders of the dorsal fins, pectoral, anal and caudal  have a black stain. On the sides it is present a white strip.
Reproduction: viviparous
(with placenta)
Compare with the man: dangerous.
Commercial value: is fished to use the meats, the skin, the liver and the carcass of it. 

Teeth: small, sharp, with serrated edges, similar in the two jaws. 

Notes: powerful shark, with the long and pointed head; the eyes are small and round. The first dorsal fin is tall and falcade, the second smaller. The pectoral fins are long and falciformes, the caudal fin is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. This shark alive in waters both coastlines and pelagic and it reaches depth of around 50 m. The preys are constituted by fishes, molluscs, shellfishes and snakes of sea. To this shark some attacks have been attributed to the man and it are considered very aggressive in presence of alimentary stimuli.

 

 

 

GREY SHARK
Carcharhinus plumbeus
NARDO, 1827
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 200 cm
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 300 cm  Distribution: in all the tropical and moderate seas, Mediterranean Sea included.
Coloration: grey-brown back, white abdomen.  Reproduction: viviparous
(with placenta)
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous.  Commercial value: object of sporting and commercial fishing for the meats, the fins and the liver. 

Teeth: triangular serrated and slightly oblique in the superior jaw, in that inferior more tightened. 

Notes: averages' shark dimensions, with short and rounded off face. The first dorsal fin is great and triangular the second smaller. The pectoral fins are long and falcades, the caudal fin has the superior lobe very developed. It swims in pelagic waters and coastlines from the surface to around 250 m of depth completing long seasonal migrations. This shark feeds of fishes and invertebrates. The grey shark is submitted to a strong sporting and commercial fishing pressure that is putting in danger its survival.

 

 

LESSER SPOTTED CATSHARK
Scyliorhinus canicula
LINNEO, 1758
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Scyliorhinidae

Middle dimensions: 20-60 cm
Maximum dimensions: 100 cm
Distribution: Oriental Atlantic, in the Mediterranean it is present anywhere.  Coloration: back color sand-blasts with numerous black stains, brown, sometimes white, wide also to the sides and the fins; clear abdomen.  Reproduction: oviparous. The eggs are contained by long transparent capsules around 4 cm and wide 2 cm.
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: this shark is fished for its meats, very appreciate and consumed both fresh and salty. 

Teeth: small and numerous, with a central point and 1-2 bi-side cusps, very similar in the two jaws. 

Notes: shark from the slender body, with a short head, rounded off and flattened. The dorsal fins are two, situated in behind position, the pectoral fins have the rounded off borders. The caudal fin is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. This shark swims in proximity of the fund, muddy and rocky, to depth that can reach 400 m. The preys are constituted by small fishes, shellfishes and molluscs. The eggs are deposed and fixed in a little deep waters with fibrous prolongations

 

 

Mustelus mustelus
LINNEO, 1758
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Triakidae
 
Middle dimensions: 60-110 cm
Maximum dimensions: 160 cm
Distribution: Oriental Atlantic, in the Mediterranean it is present anywhere.
Coloration: grey-brown back, abdomen white cream.
Reproduction: viviparous (with placenta)
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: object of professional fishing for his white meats, very appreciate and consumed both fresh that freeze.

Teeth: small, with the beveled points and very similar in the two jaws.

Notes: average's shark ransom, with the wide face and rounded off. The first dorsal fin is middly ample, the smallest second. The pectoral fins are wide and of triangular form. The caudal fin is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. This shark swims next to the fund, mainly rocky, to depth that can reach 350 m, even if it doesn't generally overcome the 50 m. His preys are constituted by fishes, shellfishes and cefalopods. This is the shark more appreciated by the commercial fishing for its good white meats without thorns.
 
 

 

Squalus acanthias
SMITH & RADCLIFFE, 1912
Order: Squaliformes
Family: Squalidae
 
Middle dimensions: 60-90 cm
Maximum dimensions: 150 cm
Distribution: in all the seas of the world, to exclusion of those tropical.
Coloration: brown or grey back with small white stains.
Reproduction: ovoviviparous (viviparous without placenta)
Compare with the man: can be dangerous, above all because of his backbones containing a toxic substance.
Commercial value: is fished to use his meats, considered of discreet quality.

Teeth: small, sharp, with an alone oblique cusp, very similar in the two jaws.

Notes: slender shark and with the flattened face, the eyes are very developed. The two dorsal fins are endowed with a thorn to circular section, container a toxic substance, that can provoke very painful wounds. Alive in coastal waters and also offshore, up to the depth of 1000 m, feeding himself of fishes, cefalopod, shellfishes and celenterati. This shark completes seasonal migrations that bring him to complete more than 6000 km of distance. This kind is so intensely fished by to put of it seriously to risk the survival.

 

 

Negaprion brevirostris
POEY, 1868
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 200 cm.
Maximum dimensions: 350 cm.
Distribution: Oriental and western Atlantic.
Coloration: brown-yellowish back, abdomen color cremates.
Reproduction: viviparous (with placenta)
Compare with the man: it becomes aggressive if provoked.
Commercial value: is fished to use the meats, the liver and the fins of it.

Teeth: sharp, smooth, without side cusps, similar in the two jaws.

Notes: shark of great dimensions from the thick body and with short face and rounded off. The two dorsal fins are short and almost to the same height. The pectoral fins are slightly falciformes and the caudal fin it is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. The Lemon shark swims both in coastal waters and pelagic ones, up to the depth of around 100 m. The preys are constituted by fishes, races, sharks, shellfishes and molluscs. It becomes very aggressive if provoked, as the Lemon shark sickle (Negaprion acutidens) and he holds responsible of some serious accidents.
(READ THE ARTICLE)

 

 

Carcharhinus leucas
VALENCIENNES, 1839
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 200 cm.
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 350 cm.
Distribution: in all the tropical and sub-tropical seas. Mediterranean?
Coloration: back from grey to brown olive, the apexes of the fins are dark, abdomen white.
Reproduction: viviparous (with placenta)
Compare with the man: very dangerous.
Commercial value: this shark is fished to use the meats, the liver, the skin and the carcass of it.


Teeth: in the superior jaw they are wide, triangular, serrated; slightly more narrow in that inferior.

Notes: very strong shark, with short face and rounded off. The first dorsal fin is tall and great, the second smallest. The pectoral fins are long and falciformes, the caudal fin asymmetrical with the superior lobe low and lengthened. The Leuca shark succeeds to way of living both in iper-salty waters that sweets, preferably flood waters and muddy, from few meters up to around 150 m of depth. Its preys are constituted by fishes, turtle, shellfishes, cefalopods, sharks, races and small sea mammals and earthlings. In the stomach of the Leuca shark has been found rests of dogs, mice, cattle, antelopes and men.
(READ THE ARTICLE)

 

 

 

JAPANESE HORN SHARK
Heterodontus japonicus
MACLAY E MACLEAY, 1884
Order: Heterodontiformes
Family: Heterodontidae

Middle dimensions: 50-70 cm.
Maximum dimensions: up to 120 cm.   Distribution: in the moderate waters of the ocean Pacific, from Japan to China and Taiwan. It swims in depth that has gone since 6 to the 35 m.  Coloration: the back is brown with dark transversal gangs. The abdomen can have a clearer coloration. 
Reproduction: oviparous 
Compare with the man: harmless. 
Commercial value: the shark doesn't have commercial value. 

 Teeth: in the juvenile phase they are claw, with different cuspids, while in adult age the back teeth become molariformes losing the cuspids. This type of teeth is better for the crushing of the esoscheletris and hulls of the invertebrates. (the same nomenclature Heterodontus, that is "with different teeth", suggests this particularity) 

Notes: its preys are constituted by molluscs, shellfishes and small fishes. As the other sharks of his family the face is characterized by the presence of crests, that make him of round form. The dorsal fins are two, with a thorn on the anterior border. Kind appreciated of the acquariofilis becouse this shark suits very well in the captivity, if well kept

 

 

 

 

BLUNTNOSE SIXGILL SHARK
Hexanchus griseus
BONNATERRE, 1788
Order: Hexanchiformes
Family: Hexanchidae

Middle dimensions: 200-350 cm 
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 500 cm  Distribution: tropical and moderate seas, included the Mediterranean. 

Coloration:  dark or grey brown back, clearer abdomen. 
Reproduction: probably viviparous without placenta (ovoviviparous). 
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous for the dimensions that it reaches. 
Commercial value: the shark is fished to use its meats. 

Teeth: in the superior jaw they are small with a principal cuspid and some secondary ones, in the inferior jaw the teeth are wide with a principal cuspid and numerous secondary ones. 

Notes: shark from the short and wide face, characterized by the presence of an only dorsal fin, very behind and from six gills instead of five, as in almost all the known sharks. The caudal fin has the very ample superior lobe. It swims among the surface and around 1800 m. of depth. During the nighttime hours it goes in search of preys, constituted by fishes, shellfishes, molluscs and sharks.  

 

 

 

GREYSPOTTED CATSHARK
Asymbolus analis
OGILBY, 1885
Order:
Carcharhiniformes
Family: Scyliorhinidae

Middle dimensions: 50-55 cm.  
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 90 cm.   Distribution: it swims in Australian coastal waters. It foresees on coral backdrops up to 170 m of depth. 
Coloration: livery of clear brown color with dots and dark spots. 
Reproduction: oviparous 
Compare with the man: harmless.  Commercial value: it doesn't have commercial value. 

Teeth: small 

Notes: active shark above all at night, hunting among the madrepores of the coral barriers. The preys are constituted by small fishes and bentonic invertebrates. This shark has a very flexible body that allows him to slip himself in very narrow fissures. (bentonic organisms: that live on the fund or in proximity of it) 

 

 

 

 

CORAL CATSHARK
Atelomycterus marmoatus
BENNETT, 1830
Order:
Carcharhiniformes
Family: Scyliorhinidae

Middle dimensions: 50-55 cm.  
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 70 cm.   Distribution: in all the waters of the Indo-Pacific.  Coloration: very varying, but the dorsal fins always have some white stains. Also the rest of the body generally results spotted. 
Reproduction: oviparous 
Compare with the man: harmless. 
Commercial value: it doesn't have commercial value. 

Teeth: small, with three cusps. 

Notes: active shark above all at night, hunting among the madrepores of the coral barriers. The preys are constituted by small fishes and bentonic invertebrate. (bentonic organisms: that live on the fund or in proximity of it) 

 

 

 

 


Odontaspis ferox
RISSO, 1810
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Odontaspididae
 
Middle dimensions: 150-200 cm.
Maximus dimensions: up to 450 cm.
Distribution: in all the oceans, in the Mediterranean is present anywhere.
Coloration: gray back, white abdomen.
Reproduction: viviparous without placenta.
Compare with the man: harmless. 
Commercial value: the shark is fished to use the meats and the liver.
 
Teeth: Long and sharp with one  stings central and more bi-side cusps. The teeth are similar in the jaws.
 
Notes: big dimension shark with long and pointed nose, big eyes. The first dorsal fin is quite big the second smaller. The caudal fin is asymmetrical, with ample superior lobe. Biology and etology of this shark are not well known. Lives probably near the seaside, from 10 to 450 m. His preys are: fishes, cefalopods ad crustacea.
The cagnaccio shark is very similar to the Carcharias taurus  from which mainly differs for the body colours and the form of the teeth.

 

 

 

OCEANIC WHITE TIP SHARK
Carcharhinus longimanus
POEY, 1861
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae

Middle dimensions: 180-200 cm
Maximum dimensions: can reach 400 cm  Distribution: in all the tropical and sub-tropical seas of the world.
Coloration: bronzy-grey shark, white abdomen with a clean and irregular separation from that dorsal. This shark is easily recognizable from the thick and mighty body and from the pectoral fins, very great, rounded to the extremities and white coloured, always in the terminal part. The first dorsal fin is great, rounded and it finishes with a showy white stain. Also the ventral fins and the superior extremities of the caudal fin are recognizable for  white color. The second dorsal fin and the anal fin are grey dark bronze coloured. The face is rounded and the eyes are great.
Reproduction: viviparous with yolk-sac placenta.  Compare with the man: considered a very dangerous shark for the man.
Commercial value: object of sporting and commercial fishing for the great fins. The populations of this shark seem to be decreased during the last years.  

Teeth: triangular and serrated to the borders. The teeth of the superior arcade are greater while those of the inferior arcade are more lengthened and narrow. 

Notes: very powerful, curious and tenacious shark, it normally swims in pelagic waters, from the surface up to around 180 m of depth. It rarely swims near to the continental reefs (close to the beaches) while it is being more frequent around insular reef. This shark is often surrounded by numerous Naucrates ductor (pilot fishes), it swims slowly, both during the day and during the night, but it is able of fast releases. The oceanic white tip shark eats bony fishes, cefalopods, gastropods, shellfishes, sea birds and races.  This shark is potentially very dangerous for the man and it is responsible  of a certain number of attacks in deep waters, away from the coasts, in case of castaways.
(READ THE ARTICLE)

 

 

 

 

JAPANESE WOBBEGONG
Orectolobus japonicus
REGAN, 1906
Order: Orectolobiformes
Family: Orectolobidae
 
Middle dimensions: 60 cm
Maximum dimensions: 100 cm
Distribution: Pacific Ocean, north-western.
Coloration: brown clear with dark stains on the back.
Reproduction: viviparous without placenta
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: this shark is fished to use its meats.
 
Teeth: sharpen in the anterior part of the mouth, more breadths and pieces, proper to triturate, in the back part.
 
Notes: shark from the cylindrical form, taller in the anterior part, with the wide face. The dorsal fins are two and both are endowed with anterior thorns. The wobbegong is a bentonic shark, alive in contact with the seabed, to depth since 5 to the 30 m. Ther preys are constituted by molluscs, shellfishes and small fishes.

 

 

 

 

 

SMALLTOOTH SAWFISH
Pristis pectinata
LATHAM, 1794
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Pristidae

Middle dimensions: 350 cm.
Maximum dimensions: it reaches the 600 cm.
Distribution: in all the tropical and sub-tropical seas. Mediterranean?
Coloration: grey back with greenish reflexes, abdomen clear.
Reproduction: viviparous without placenta (ovoviviparous).
Compare with the man: dangerous if touched or unawares stamped on.
Commercial value: this ray is fished for selling the saw as trophy of it.

Teeth: on the rostrum are present from 20 to 34 pairs of small side teeth, in the mouth different files of small sharp teeth.

Notes: ray from the slender body characterized by a prolongation of the superior jaw endowed with couples of side teeth, that is used for mortally hurting the preys. The two dorsal fins are triangular, situated in behind position, the anal fin is absent. The caudal fin doesn't have the inferior lobe. This ray lives in sea waters, lake and in proximity of estuaries, its preys are constituted from invertebrate. This fishes are rays and they differentiate him from the though similar sawsharks for their greater dimensions, for the teeth on the rostrum of the same greatness, for the absence of "barbigli" and for the presence of ventral gills.

 

 

 

 

 

GREATER SPOTTED CATSHARK
Scyliorhinus stellaris
LINNEO, 1758
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Scyliorhinidae
 
Middle dimensions: 80-110 cm
Maximum dimensions: 200 cm
Distribution: Oriental Atlantic, in the Mediterranean it is present anywhere.
Coloration: clear light brown back, with numerous brown or white irregular stains; abdomen clear.
Reproduction: oviparous. The eggs are contained by long capsules 15 cm and wide 5 cm.
Compare with the man: harmless.
Commercial value: is fished to use its meats.
 
Teeth: small and numerous, with a central point and one bi-side cusp, very similar in the two jaws.
 
Notes: thick shark, characterized by a wide face and flattened. The dorsal fins are two and situated in behind position, the pectoral fins are triangular. The caudal fin is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. This shark swims next to the fund, mainly rocky, to depth up to 60 m in Atlantic and 120 m in Mediterranean. Its preys are constituted by small fishes, races, shellfishes and cefalopods. The capsules that contain eggs deposed by this kind are rectangular and fixed to the substratum with long fibrous prolongations.

 

 

 

 

 

DUSKY SHARK
Carcharhinus obscurus
The SUEURs, 1818
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae
 
Middle dimensions: 200-250 cm
Maximum dimensions: 420 cm
Distribution: Indopacific, Atlantic, in warm tropical and moderate waters. Mediterranean? Coloration: grey-bronzy back, white abdomen; the borders of the pectoral fins can be more dark color ventrally.
Reproduction: viviparous.
Compare with the man: potentially dangerous. Commercial value: is fished for using its meats.
 
Teeth: triangular, great, with the edges serrated in the superior jaw, more narrow in that inferior.

Notes: strong shark, with the long face middly and rounded off, the eyes are great and round. The first dorsal fin is not very developed, the second is similar to that anal. The pectoral fins are long and falcate, the caudal fin is asymmetrical with the superior lobe more developed. Is present both in coastal waters and pelagic ones, from the surface up to 400 m of depth. Its preys are constituted by fishes, sharks, races, cefalopods, shellfishes and sea snakes. This shark completes ample seasonal migrations and is often confused with the grey, sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus).

 

 

 

 

GREAT HAMMERHEAD SHARK
Sphyrna mokarran
RUPPEL, 1837
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Sphyrnidae

Middle dimensions: 300 cm
Maximum dimensions: 600 cm
Distribution: in all the seas of the globe, present in Mediterranean sea.
Coloration: grey-brown back, white abdomen. Reproduction: viviparous.
Compare with the man: very dangerous.
Commercial value: is fished for using its meats.
 
Teeth: triangular, oblique, with the edges very serrated, similar in the two jaws.

Notes: shark characterized by a head flattened with two side expansions at the end of which the eyes are found. It is the greatest hammerhead shark, reaching and perhaps overcoming the 600 cm of length. The first dorsal fin is very tall and falcate, the second one and the pectoral fins long and concave. The caudal fin has the superior lobe very developed. This shark lives in pelagic waters, up to around 100 m of depth, plundering fishes, sharks, races, cefalopods and shellfishes. The function of such a particular head is not clear, probably it is that to increase the sensorial abilities like the sight, the sense of smell and the ampullae of lorenzinii. the idrodinamicity of the shark could also result improved by such conformation.
(READ THE ARTICLE)

 

 

 

 

COPPER SHARK
Carcharhinus brachyurus
The SUEURs, 1818
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae
 
Middle dimensions: 200 cm
Maximum dimensions: 325 cm
Distribution: Indopacific, oriental Atlantic and Mediterranean.
Coloration: grey-bronzy back, white abdomen; on the sides can be present a white strip.
Reproduction: viviparous.
Compare with the man: very dangerous.
Commercial value: is fished to use the meat.
 
Teeth: triangular, serrated, with thin central point and wide base in the jaw superior, sharper and narrow in that inferior

 

 

 

 

GALAPAGOS SHARK
Carcharhinus galapagensis
SNODGRASS & HELLER, 1905
Order: Carcharhiniformes
Family: Carcharhinidae
 
Middle dimensions: 240 cm
Maximum dimensions: 370 cm
Distribution: Atlantic, Pacific and southern coasts of Madagascar.
Coloration: grey-brown back, often the ventral apexes of the pectoral fins are black; whitish abdomen.
Reproduction: viviparous.
Compare with the man: very dangerous.
Commercial value: is fished to use its meats.
 
Teeth: oblique and serrated in the jaw superior, more narrow and sharp in that inferior.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marco Angelozzi - www.prionace.it

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